You will have been developing the art of essay writing throughout your school life. As you start to write more mature and sophisticated essays you need the language to be able to do this properly.
Firstly there is a language (which I call ‘critical words’) that introduces an argument. By ‘argument’ I mean the assessment or evaluation of any point made. So for example in Philosophy an argument would be raised once you have presented a philosophical perspective, point or idea. In order to make it clear to your reader/ examiner that you are showing evidence of evaluation, which is necessary for top marks (not just stating facts or other people’s perspectives) use critical words.
To raise a strength supporting a point you have made options are:
So for example: Wiles presents a strong argument because… or William James raises a valuable point because…)
To raise a weakness, issue or problem against a point you have made options are:
So for example: Freud’s arguments can be seen as unreliable because… or Plato’s ideas on the soul are unlikely because…
Layering of evaluation is necessary for A/B grades. What I mean by this is once you have your first strength or weakness (evaluative foundations) you must then build upon this point, bringing in a name, concept or idea that supports or criticises this point. This can be achieved through using words such as:
So for example: This is reinforced by Swinburne who argues…. Or In contrast to Freud, even though a psychologist as well, William James would argue…)
Remember: Do not state evaluation (Freud criticises this… Dawkins would say…) because you are not demonstrating the impact that these critics have. Listing lots of names is NOT evaluation! You must critique whether these points are valuable, interesting, relevant (using critical words) and what impact this then has on the original point you made.
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